LITEMAPPER (Airborne LiDAR Terrain Mapping System)
LiteMapper is one the best equipment that can be used to produce geomatic data for any geographical purposes. It is a series of affordable airborne LiDAR terrain mapping systems for 3D topographic and 3D corridor mapping surveys with fix-wing aircraft and helicopters. The system is designed to provide highly accurate measurements for DTM and DSM creation. It is compact, lightweight and can be installed easily on small survey aircraft or different helicopter models.
LiteMapper laser scanners sample the surface in parallel lines with regular point spacing both in and across flight direction to provide the most accurate surface model. The scan speed can be varied into scanning range to provide flexible density of point spacing within each scan. The continuous rotating mirror used to spread the laser beam perpendicular to the flight direction.
Although the disadvantage of this technology is the limitation to survey the information/ features that is hidden from airborne capture such as culverts, pier below bridges, etc. But the big advantage is available for the fast mapping of hostile grounds, densely forested jungle or non-accessible areas or area which is too big to be measure but require high accuracy and intensity of data.
At very high speed, this mapping technology can produce a very accurate terrain model that can produce contour map of terrain ‑oor of any forest or clear land area to within 0.15-meter resolution. Three-dimensional spot heights are produced at 0.2m to 3m grids depending on ‑ying height and skewing angle. Both of the high level and low level LiteMapper system produces digital orthophoto mosaic captured from the well calibrated digital camera on board. These data is acquired simultaneously with the laser, GPS and Inertial measurement unit’s sensor while ‑ying.
The airborne laser technique is one of the only techniques that can provide terrain information below tree canopies accurately without interpolation other than an ordinary conventional ground topographical surveying. But in term of time and accuracy over massive size of forested site, the airborne laser system will be the best technique to work with. This data provides accurate Geomatic
information to be used in Engineering design, GIS or other planning activities such as (but not limited to);
- Detail military / security information.
- Corridor Mapping: highway, railway, pipeline, power line, and airports.
- Flood mapping: Shoreline protection and ‑ood visualization
- City modeling: Urban planning, waste management, route planning (emergency, trafc), noise protection, cadastral registration (trees, buildings) and tourism.
- Forestry: canopy height, single tree segmentation, height, crown diameter, classication, and derive a bare earth DTM under the trees.
- Precise GIS planning and maintenance.
- Terrain study including slope analysis.
- Environmental management, also the impact to floral & fauna and monitoring study.
- The overall terrain analysis for highland or undeveloped area development.
- Coastal erosion / highwater mark monitoring.
- Flood mitigation research programs.
- Route projects and study such as roads, pipeline, transmission line and their maintenance.
- Water catchments hydraulic analysis for Dam or water supply projects.
- Cellular network/ microwave beam coverage study.
- Other engineering, scientific and planning industries.
In collaboration with international and local spectral imaging company IMOSS Technology are capable to provide Hyperspectral Imaging, also termed imaging spectroscopy, combines the elds of digital imaging and spectroscopy. The Hyperspectral camera captures the light intensity (radiance) for more than four hundred continuous spectral bands. The continuous spectrum obtained can be used to characterize objects with precision and detail. Traditional colour cameras capture only the primary visual three spectral channels red, green and blue. This abilityof Hyperspectral Camera to capture data well beyond the spectral range of the human eye, along with the addition of hundreds of spectral bands, vastly improves object classication. The material spectra can be used against known indices such as vegetation health or mineralogical indices for geological applications.
Applications for remote sensing airborne hyperspectral images include:
- Forestry: vegetation mapping, classication, health monitoring.
- Agriculture: farming, growth monitoring, yield prediction.
- Geology: mineral mapping, environmental impact studies.
- Environmental: monitoring, algal blooms, oil spills.
- Government: land use monitoring, urban planning/development, coastal survey.
AERIAL DIGITAL IMAGERY
IMOSS Technology is also having a very high-resolution Aerial Digital Camera with medium to large format and can be set up for oblique imaging to capture images of earth surfaces without ignoring every details of the objects to be capture on the ground surface.
There are many advantages of this medium-high format imaging system in compare with normal digital camera system, such as;
- Images are continuously captured by GPS triggered method, which is allowed very precised image positioning and orientation corrected in every second.
- Due to the multiple scanning sensor simultaneously, the images produces ortho result directly with the laser point result. This produces high quality and speed of image processing.
- Images by scanning method captures even narrow street within buildings/mountains, where normal camera normally is blocked by the neighboring high-building/mountain oblique images surrounding the area.
DIGITAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (Mineral, Land, Utilities, Infra, Forest, City and Oil Palm)
Cadastral in scope of mineral management is to manage the regulation/ act/law that related to land title or any related plan (gazette and lease of the mines or land that contain the minerals). The documentation for pointed department or any agencies that has power to the land itself will done to avoid any problem in land acquisition or access way to the mines. Location, attribute, owner, area, title, ownership and other attribute of each land will be get and related action easily can be made.
Orthophoto is an aerial photograph or image geometrically corrected (“orthorectied”) such that the scale is uniform and the photo has the same lack of distortion as a map. Unlike an uncorrected aerial photograph, an orthophoto can be used to measure true distances, because it is an accurate representation of the Earth’s surface, having been adjusted for topographic relief, lens distortion, and camera tilt. Considering the applicability of the orthophoto technique to thematic map compilation in open-pit mines, it is necessary to realize what kind of cartographic source of data the orthophoto map is. Orthophoto maps have pictorial qualities of air photos and therefore images of an innite number of terrain objects can be
recognized and identied
A Digital Elevation Model (DEM), also referred to as the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) is a digital representation of earth's topography, i.e. an elevation map. DEMs can be used to derive topographic attributes, geomorphometric parameters, morphometric variables or terrain information in general. In combination with other spatial data, digital elevation models are an important database for topography-related analyses or 3D video animations (e.g. ‑y throughs). Different georeferenced 3D products can be derived and complemented by a coordinate system and presented in a 2D-map projection or as a 3D perspective view
DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS (DEMs)
DEMs are important in providing valuable geological information that can be used as a guide in dening the geology of a given area. Geological structures and rock unit boundaries showing a strong correlation with relief can be mapped with detailed topographic analysis. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are the most suitable tools for such kind of analysis because they yield an accurate representation of relief and can be processed with computers. Using DEMs, topographic attributes (elevation, slope, etc.) are easily quantied and can be displayed as output images called DEM derived surfaces. Through these images, DEMs display the relationships between topography and geology. Digital elevation models deliver basic information on geologic structures. These information sources are especially important in remote areas where coverage by topographic maps is limited. Exploration geologists are possibly the most experienced users of digital elevation models and hyperspectral remote sensing data. By analyzing digital elevation models, they determine promising regions of potential mineral deposits which nd an expression as a topographic prominence or depression, or placer deposits found along stream channel. More and more, a combination of remote sensing data, especially DEMs, with gravity maps the identication of oil spills on satellite imagery and other phenomena and combinations leads the prospecting companies to successful explorations. In addition to exploration activities digital elevation models are also used for monitoring the exploration consequences. The problems of subsidence in mining regions, for example, can be studied and evaluated using DEMs.
DIGITAL SURFACE MODELS (DSMs)
DSM's measure the height values of the rst surface on the ground. This includes terrain features, buildings, vegetation and power lines etc. DSM's therefore provide a topographic model of the earth's surface. DSM's can be used to create 3D ‑y-throughs, support location-based systems and augmented simulated environments. This data can be used in a range of GIS and CAD formats. The elevation data produced is suitable for a range of environmental applications, including ‑ood risk assessment, mines monitoring, mineral surface detection or any 3D model
The following functions have been found to be most useful in depicting geological information:
Displays the grade of steepness expressed in degrees or as percent slope. This image can reveal structural lineaments, fault scarps, uvial terrace scarps, etc
Identi¬es the down-slope direction. Aspect images may enhance landforms such as uvial networks, alluvial fans, faceted fault related scarps, etc.
Shaded topographic relief or hill-shading
This image depicts relief by simulating the effect of the sun's illumination on the terrain. The direction and the altitude of the illumination can be changed in order to emphasize faults, lineaments, etc. This image is probably the most useful to display geological data related to landforms in terrains that show a close correlation between geology and topography.
Shows the direction of ow by ¬nding the direction of the steepest descent or maximum drop. This DEM derived surface depicts the drainage.
Function that uses a grid of ow direction (output of ow direction) to determine the contributing area
A map that shows the types and intensities of different land uses in a particular area. In the term of mineral management, this map will be used to indicate any item that suitable and not suitable for the mineral extraction and decision making.
This map will contain important attribute that explain the features and detail of the area itself. Base on the map itself a preliminary decision can be made
Hyperspectral Imagery allows for the classication, identication, and detection of vegetation phenomena that relate to a wide range of applications to include: species identication, insect and disease detection/monitoring, and vegetative health. The high spectral resolution achievable with hyperspectral imaging has long been used for vegetation health mapping identication. By covering a wider spectral range with more spectral channels at a high spectral resolution, hyperspectral data has surpassed the capabilities of photogrammetry and multispectral digital imagery for all types of classication needs.
Hyperspectral remote-sensing techniques offer an efcient procedure for mineral mapping, with a unique hyperspectral remote-sensing ngerprint in the longwave infrared spectral region enabling identication of the most abundant minerals (>100 bands). Detection of mineral is dependent on the spectral coverage, spectral resolution and signal to noise ratio of the spectrometer, the abundance of the mineral
Therefore, technological developments in Earth-observation remote-sensing tools have positioned hyper-spectral remote sensing as a useful tool for mineral mapping using airborne hyperspectral mapping. Several algorithms, normalized emissivity procedure (NEM), adjusted normalized emissivity procedure (ANEM), stepwise rening temperature and emissivity separation (SRTES), and in-scene atmospheric compensation procedure (ISAC), among others, have been applied to hyperspectral data to correct for atmosphere and calculate the surface emissivity, an important variable for mineral mapping
Soil map is a geographical representation showing diversity of soil types and/or soil properties (soil pH, textures, organic matter, depths of horizons etc.) in the area of interest. It is typically the result of a soil survey inventory. Soil maps are most commonly used for land evaluation, spatial planning, agricultural extension, environmental protection and similar projects. Traditional soil maps typically show only general distribution of soils, accompanied by the soil survey report. Many new soil maps are derived using digital soil mapping techniques. Such maps are typically richer in context and show higher spatial detail than traditional soil maps. Soil maps produced using (geo)statistical techniques also include an estimate of the model uncertainty.